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Rundele bonus aduc si ele surprize. Poti incerca si alte jocuri similare ca: Soon after Mexican independence from Spain, the chain of missions became the property of the Mexican government and was secularized by From the s, trappers and settlers from the United States and the future Canada arrived in Northern California.
The early government of the newly independent Mexico was highly unstable, and in a reflection of this, from onwards, California also experienced a series of armed disputes, both between regional areas, and also revolts against the central Mexican government.
One of the largest ranchers in California was John Marsh. After failing to obtain justice against squatters on his land from the Mexican courts, he determined that California should become part of the United States.
Marsh conducted a letter-writing campaign espousing the California climate, soil and other reasons to settle there, as well as the best route to follow, which became known as "Marsh's route.
After ushering in the period of organized emigration to California, Marsh helped end the rule of the last Mexican governor of California, thereby paving the way to California's ultimate acquisition by the United States.
Afterwards, rebels raised the Bear Flag featuring a bear, a star, a red stripe and the words "California Republic" at Sonoma. The Republic's only president was William B.
Ide ,  who played a pivotal role during the Bear Flag Revolt. This revolt by American settlers served as a prelude to the later American military invasion of California, and was closely coordinated with nearby American military commanders.
The California Republic was short lived;  the same year marked the outbreak of the Mexican—American War — Following the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo February 2, that ended the war, the westernmost portion of the annexed Mexican territory of Alta California soon became the American state of California, and the remainder of the old territory was then subdivided into the new American Territories of Arizona , Nevada , Colorado and Utah.
The lightly populated and arid lower region of old Baja California remained as a part of Mexico.
In , the total settler population of the western part of the old Alta California had been estimated to be no more than 8,, plus about , Native Americans, down from about , before Hispanic settlement in In , only one week before the official American annexation of the area, gold was discovered in California, this being an event which was to forever alter both the state's demographics and its finances.
Soon afterward, a massive influx of immigration into the area resulted, as prospectors and miners arrived by the thousands.
By the time of California's application to the US Congress for statehood in , the settler population of California had multiplied to , By , over , settlers had come.
The seat of government for California under Spanish and later Mexican rule had been located in Monterey from until In , a state Constitutional Convention was first held in Monterey.
Among the first tasks of the Convention was a decision on a location for the new state capital. The first full legislative sessions were held in San Jose — Subsequent locations included Vallejo — , and nearby Benicia — ; these locations eventually proved to be inadequate as well.
The capital has been located in Sacramento since  with only a short break in when legislative sessions were held in San Francisco due to flooding in Sacramento.
Once the state's Constitutional Convention had finalized its state constitution, it applied to the US Congress for admission to statehood.
On September 9, , as part of the Compromise of , California was officially admitted into the United States as an undivided free state.
Its status as a 'free state' prevented the expansion of slavery to the Pacific Coast, which was a foremost concern for the pre- Civil War US Congress.
Within the state of California, Sep 9 remains as an annually celebrated legal holiday known as California Admission Day. During the American Civil War — , California was able to send gold shipments eastwards to Washington in support of the Union cause ;  however, due to the existence of a large contingent of pro-South sympathizers within the state, the state was not able to muster any full military regiments to send eastwards to officially serve in the Union war effort.
Still, several smaller military units within the Union army were unofficially associated with the state of California, such as the "California Company" , due to a majority of their members being from California.
At the time of California's admission into the Union, travel between California and the rest of the continental United States had been a time consuming and dangerous feat.
Nineteen years afterwards, in , shortly after the conclusion of the Civil War, a more direct connection was developed with the completion of the First Transcontinental Railroad in California was then easy to reach.
Much of the state was extremely well suited to fruit cultivation and agriculture in general. Vast expanses of wheat, other cereal crops, vegetable crops, cotton, and nut and fruit trees were grown including oranges in Southern California , and the foundation was laid for the state's prodigious agricultural production in the Central Valley and elsewhere.
Under earlier Spanish and Mexican rule, California's original native population had precipitously declined, above all, from Eurasian diseases to which the indigenous people of California had not yet developed a natural immunity.
As in other American states, many of the native inhabitants were soon forcibly removed from their lands by incoming American settlers such as miners, ranchers, and farmers.
Although California had entered the American union as a free state, the "loitering or orphaned Indians" were de facto enslaved by their new Anglo-American masters under the Act for the Government and Protection of Indians.
Between and , the California state government paid around 1. In later decades, the native population was placed in reservations and rancherias, which were often small and isolated and without enough natural resources or funding from the government to sustain the populations living on them.
Several scholars and Native American activists, including Benjamin Madley and Ed Castillo , have described the actions of the California government as a genocide.
Migration to California accelerated during the early 20th century with the completion of major transcontinental highways like the Lincoln Highway and Route In the period from to , the population grew from fewer than one million to the greatest in the Union.
In , the Census Bureau reported California's population as 6. The state government also adopted the California Master Plan for Higher Education in to develop a highly efficient system of public education.
Meanwhile, attracted to the mild Mediterranean climate, cheap land, and the state's wide variety of geography, filmmakers established the studio system in Hollywood in the s.
This is often referred to by the media as the California exodus. During the 20th century, two great disasters happened in California.
The San Francisco earthquake and St. Francis Dam flood remain the deadliest in U. California is the 3rd largest state in the United States in area, after Alaska and Texas.
In the middle of the state lies the California Central Valley , bounded by the Sierra Nevada in the east, the coastal mountain ranges in the west, the Cascade Range to the north and by the Tehachapi Mountains in the south.
The Central Valley is California's productive agricultural heartland. Both valleys derive their names from the rivers that flow through them. With dredging, the Sacramento and the San Joaquin Rivers have remained deep enough for several inland cities to be seaports.
Water is diverted from the delta and through an extensive network of pumps and canals that traverse nearly the length of the state, to the Central Valley and the State Water Projects and other needs.
Water from the Delta provides drinking water for nearly 23 million people, almost two-thirds of the state's population as well as water for farmers on the west side of the San Joaquin Valley.
In the western part of the state is Clear Lake , the largest freshwater lake by area entirely in California.
The Sierra Nevada falls to Arctic temperatures in winter and has several dozen small glaciers, including Palisade Glacier , the southernmost glacier in the United States.
About 45 percent of the state's total surface area is covered by forests,  and California's diversity of pine species is unmatched by any other state.
California contains more forestland than any other state except Alaska. Many of the trees in the California White Mountains are the oldest in the world; an individual bristlecone pine is over 5, years old.
In the south is a large inland salt lake, the Salton Sea. Indeed, almost all of southeastern California is arid, hot desert, with routine extreme high temperatures during the summer.
The southeastern border of California with Arizona is entirely formed by the Colorado River , from which the southern part of the state gets about half of its water.
As part of the Ring of Fire , California is subject to tsunamis , floods , droughts, Santa Ana winds , wildfires , landslides on steep terrain, and has several volcanoes.
It has many earthquakes due to several faults running through the state, in particular, the San Andreas Fault. About 37, earthquakes are recorded each year, but most are too small to be felt.
Although most of the state has a Mediterranean climate , due to the state's large size, the climate ranges from polar to subtropical. The cool California Current offshore often creates summer fog near the coast.
Farther inland, there are colder winters and hotter summers. The maritime moderation results in the shoreline summertime temperatures of Los Angeles and San Francisco being the coolest of all major metropolitan areas of the United States and uniquely cool compared to areas on the same latitude in the interior and on the east coast of the North American continent.
Even the San Diego shoreline bordering Mexico is cooler in summer than most areas in the contiguous United States.
Just a few miles inland, summer temperature extremes are significantly higher, with downtown Los Angeles being several degrees warmer than at the coast.
The same microclimate phenomenon is seen in the climate of the Bay Area, where areas sheltered from the sea experience significantly hotter summers than nearby areas that are close to the ocean.
Northern parts of the state have more rain than the south. California's mountain ranges also influence the climate: Northwestern California has a temperate climate , and the Central Valley has a Mediterranean climate but with greater temperature extremes than the coast.
The high mountains, including the Sierra Nevada , have an alpine climate with snow in winter and mild to moderate heat in summer.
California's mountains produce rain shadows on the eastern side, creating extensive deserts. The higher elevation deserts of eastern California have hot summers and cold winters, while the low deserts east of the Southern California mountains have hot summers and nearly frostless mild winters.
The table below lists average temperatures for January and August in a selection of places throughout the state; some highly populated and some not.
This includes the relatively cool summers of the Humboldt Bay region around Eureka , the extreme heat of Death Valley , and the mountain climate of Mammoth in the Sierra Nevadas.
California is one of the richest and most diverse parts of the world, and includes some of the most endangered ecological communities.
California is part of the Nearctic ecozone and spans a number of terrestrial ecoregions. California's large number of endemic species includes relict species, which have died out elsewhere, such as the Catalina ironwood Lyonothamnus floribundus.
Many other endemics originated through differentiation or adaptive radiation , whereby multiple species develop from a common ancestor to take advantage of diverse ecological conditions such as the California lilac Ceanothus.
Many California endemics have become endangered, as urbanization, logging, overgrazing , and the introduction of exotic species have encroached on their habitat.
California boasts several superlatives in its collection of flora: California's native grasses are perennial plants. Because California has the greatest diversity of climate and terrain, the state has six life zones which are the lower Sonoran desert ; upper Sonoran foothill regions and some coastal lands , transition coastal areas and moist northeastern counties ; and the Canadian, Hudsonian, and Arctic Zones, comprising the state's highest elevations.
Plant life in the dry climate of the lower Sonoran zone contains a diversity of native cactus, mesquite, and paloverde.
The Joshua tree is found in the Mojave Desert. Flowering plants include the dwarf desert poppy and a variety of asters.
Fremont cottonwood and valley oak thrive in the Central Valley. The upper Sonoran zone includes the chaparral belt, characterized by forests of small shrubs, stunted trees, and herbaceous plants.
Nemophila , mint , Phacelia , Viola , and the California poppy Eschscholzia californica — the state flower — also flourish in this zone, along with the lupine, more species of which occur here than anywhere else in the world.
The transition zone includes most of California's forests with the redwood Sequoia sempervirens and the "big tree" or giant sequoia Sequoiadendron giganteum , among the oldest living things on earth some are said to have lived at least 4, years.
Tanbark oak , California laurel , sugar pine , madrona , broad-leaved maple , and Douglas-fir also grow here.
Forest floors are covered with swordfern , alumnroot, barrenwort , and trillium , and there are thickets of huckleberry , azalea , elder, and wild currant.
Characteristic wild flowers include varieties of mariposa, tulip , and tiger and leopard lilies. The high elevations of the Canadian zone allow the Jeffrey pine , red fir , and lodgepole pine to thrive.
Brushy areas are abundant with dwarf manzanita and ceanothus ; the unique Sierra puffball is also found here. Right below the timberline, in the Hudsonian zone, the whitebark, foxtail, and silver pines grow.
Common plants that have been introduced to the state include the eucalyptus , acacia , pepper tree , geranium, and Scotch broom.
The species that are federally classified as endangered are the Contra Costa wallflower , Antioch Dunes evening primrose , Solano grass , San Clemente Island larkspur , salt marsh bird's beak , McDonald's rock-cress , and Santa Barbara Island liveforever.
In the deserts of the lower Sonoran zone, the mammals include the jackrabbit , kangaroo rat , squirrel, and opossum.
Common birds include the owl , roadrunner , cactus wren , and various species of hawk. The area's reptilian life include the sidewinder viper , desert tortoise , and horned toad.
The upper Sonoran zone boasts mammals such as the antelope , brown-footed woodrat , and ring-tailed cat. Birds unique to this zone are the California thrasher , bushtit , and California condor.
In the transition zone, there are Colombian black-tailed deer , black bears , gray foxes , cougars , bobcats , and Roosevelt elk. Reptiles such as the garter snakes and rattlesnakes inhabit the zone.
In addition, amphibians such as the water puppy and redwood salamander are common too. Birds such as the kingfisher , chickadee, towhee , and hummingbird thrive here as well.
The Canadian zone mammals include the mountain weasel , snowshoe hare , and several species of chipmunks. Conspicuous birds include the blue-fronted jay , Sierra chickadee.
Sierra hermit thrush , water ouzel , and Townsend's solitaire. As one ascends into the Hudsonian zone, birds become scarcer.
While the Sierra rosy finch is the only bird native to the high Arctic region, other bird species such as the hummingbird and Clark's nutcracker.
Principal mammals found in this region include the Sierra coney, white-tailed jackrabbit , and the bighorn sheep.
The fauna found throughout several zones are the mule deer , coyote , mountain lion , northern flicker , and several species of hawk and sparrow.
Aquatic life in California thrives, from the state's mountain lakes and streams to the rocky Pacific coastline. Numerous trout species are found, among them rainbow , golden , and cutthroat.
Migratory species of salmon are common as well. Deep-sea life forms include sea bass , yellowfin tuna , barracuda , and several types of whale.
Native to the cliffs of northern California are seals, sea lions, and many types of shorebirds, including migratory species. Endangered animals include the San Joaquin kitfox , Point Arena mountain beaver , Pacific pocket mouse , salt marsh harvest mouse , Morro Bay kangaroo rat and five other species of kangaroo rat , Amargosa vole , California least tern , California condor , loggerhead shrike , San Clemente sage sparrow , San Francisco garter snake , five species of salamander, three species of chub, and two species of pupfish.
Eleven butterflies are also endangered  and two that are threatened are on the federal list. California has a total of , acres 1, The vast majority of rivers in California are dammed as part of two massive water projects: The state's coasts, rivers, and other bodies of water are regulated by the California Coastal Commission.
The Eel River and Salinas River each drain portions of the California coast, north and south of San Francisco Bay, respectively, and the Eel River is the largest river in the state to remain in its natural un-dammed state.
Some other important rivers are the Klamath River and the Trinity River in the far north coast, and the Colorado River on the southeast border with Arizona.
The population is projected to reach 40 million by and 50 million by Between and , there was a natural increase of 3,, 5,, births minus 2,, deaths.
Also, Los Angeles County has held the title of most populous United States county for decades, and it alone is more populous than 42 United States states.
The center of population of California is located in the town of Buttonwillow , Kern County. The state has incorporated cities and towns, of which are cities and 22 are towns.
Under California law, the terms "city" and "town" are explicitly interchangeable; the name of an incorporated municipality in the state can either be "City of Name " or "Town of Name ".
Sacramento became California's first incorporated city on February 27, The majority of these cities and towns are within one of five metropolitan areas: Starting in the year , for the first time since the California Gold Rush , California-born residents make up the majority of the state's population.
The state's population of undocumented immigrants has been shrinking in recent years, due to increased enforcement and decreased job opportunities for lower-skilled workers.
According to the United States Census Bureau in the population self-identifies as alone or in combination: By ethnicity, in the population was Hispanics are the largest single ethnic group in California.
As of [update] , In terms of total numbers, California has the largest population of White Americans in the United States, an estimated 22,, residents.
The state has the 5th largest population of African Americans in the United States, an estimated 2,, residents. California's Asian American population is estimated at 4.
California's Native American population of , is the most of any state. English serves as California's de jure and de facto official language.
In , the Modern Language Association of America estimated that Various government agencies do, and are often required to, furnish documents in the various languages needed to reach their intended audiences.
In total, 16 languages other than English were spoken as primary languages at home by more than , persons, more than any other state in the nation.
New York State, in second place, had 9 languages other than English spoken by more than , persons. California has historically been one of the most linguistically diverse areas in the world, with more than 70 indigenous languages derived from 64 root languages in 6 language families.
As a result of the state's increasing diversity and migration from other areas across the country and around the globe, linguists began noticing a noteworthy set of emerging characteristics of spoken American English in California since the late 20th century.
This variety, known as California English , has a vowel shift and several other phonological processes that are different from varieties of American English used in other regions of the United States.
The culture of California is a Western culture and most clearly has its modern roots in the culture of the United States , but also, historically, many Hispanic Californio and Mexican influences.
As a border and coastal state, Californian culture has been greatly influenced by several large immigrant populations, especially those from Latin America and Asia.
California has long been a subject of interest in the public mind and has often been promoted by its boosters as a kind of paradise. In the early 20th century, fueled by the efforts of state and local boosters, many Americans saw the Golden State as an ideal resort destination, sunny and dry all year round with easy access to the ocean and mountains.
In the s, popular music groups such as The Beach Boys promoted the image of Californians as laid-back, tanned beach-goers. The California Gold Rush of the s is still seen as a symbol of California's economic style, which tends to generate technology, social, entertainment, and economic fads and booms and related busts.
The largest religious denominations by number of adherents as a percentage of California's population in were the Catholic Church with 28 percent, Evangelical Protestants with 20 percent, and Mainline Protestants with 10 percent.
Together, all kinds of Protestants accounted for 32 percent. Those unaffiliated with any religion represented 27 percent of the population.
In , those unaffiliated with any religion represented 21 percent of the population. The breakdown of other religions in was 0.
The first priests to come to California were Roman Catholic missionaries from Spain. Roman Catholics founded 21 missions along the California coast , as well as the cities of Los Angeles and San Francisco.
California continues to have a large Roman Catholic population due to the large numbers of Mexicans and Central Americans living within its borders.
California has twelve dioceses and two archdioceses, the Archdiocese of Los Angeles and the Archdiocese of San Francisco , the former being the largest archdiocese in the United States.
The survey also revealed 48 percent of Californians say religion is "very important", compared to 56 percent nationally. California has twenty major professional sports league franchises, far more than any other state.
The San Francisco Bay Area has seven major league teams spread in its three major cities: San Diego and Sacramento each have one major league team.
California has long had many respected collegiate sports programs. California is home to the oldest college bowl game, the annual Rose Bowl , among others.
California is the only U. The and Summer Olympics were held in Los Angeles. Public secondary education consists of high schools that teach elective courses in trades, languages, and liberal arts with tracks for gifted, college-bound and industrial arts students.
California's public educational system is supported by a unique constitutional amendment that requires a minimum annual funding level for grades K—12 and community colleges that grow with the economy and student enrollment figures.
For , California's K public schools ranked 48th in the number of employees per student, at 0. A study concluded that California's public school system was "broken" in that it suffered from over-regulation.
California's public postsecondary education offers three separate systems:. California is also home to such notable private universities as Stanford University , the University of Southern California , the California Institute of Technology , and the Claremont Colleges.
California has hundreds of other private colleges and universities, including many religious and special-purpose institutions.
California has a twinning arrangement with the region of Catalonia in Spain  and the Province of Alberta in Canada. California's economy ranks among the largest in the world.
The five largest sectors of employment in California are trade, transportation, and utilities; government; professional and business services; education and health services; and leisure and hospitality.
In output, the five largest sectors are financial services, followed by trade, transportation, and utilities; education and health services; government; and manufacturing.
California's economy is dependent on trade and international related commerce accounts for about one-quarter of the state's economy.
Agriculture is an important sector in California's economy. Factors contributing to the growth in sales-per-acre include more intensive use of active farmlands and technological improvements in crop production.
The Central Valley is the most impoverished, with migrant farm workers making less than minimum wage.
According to a report by the Congressional Research Service , the San Joaquin Valley was characterized as one of the most economically depressed regions in the United States, on par with the region of Appalachia.
The high-technology sectors in Northern California, specifically Silicon Valley , in Santa Clara and San Mateo counties , have emerged from the economic downturn caused by the dot-com bust.
In , there were more than , millionaires in the state, more than any other state in the nation. California GDP by sector in Had California been an independent country in its gross domestic product would have been ranked between eighth and eleventh in the world.
California per capita personal income by county in With the passage of Proposition 30 in , California now levies a California has a state sales tax of 7.
Many of these taxes are temporary for a seven-year period as stipulated in Proposition 30 and afterwards will revert to a previous maximum marginal income tax bracket of All real property is taxable annually; the tax is based on the property's fair market value at the time of purchase or new construction.
Because it is the most populous state in the United States, California is one of the country's largest users of energy. However because of its high energy rates, conservation mandates, mild weather in the largest population centers and strong environmental movement, its per capita energy use is one of the smallest of any United States state.
As a result of the state's strong environmental movement, California has some of the most aggressive renewable energy goals in the United States, with a target for California to obtain a third of its electricity from renewables by Several dams across the state provide hydro-electric power.
The state's crude oil and natural gas deposits are located in the Central Valley and along the coast, including the large Midway-Sunset Oil Field.
Natural gas-fired power plants typically account for more than one-half of state electricity generation. California is also home to two major nuclear power plants: Diablo Canyon and San Onofre , the latter having been shut down in Voters banned the approval of new nuclear power plants since the late s because of concerns over radioactive waste disposal.
California's vast terrain is connected by an extensive system of controlled-access highways 'freeways' , limited-access roads 'expressways' , and highways.
California is known for its car culture , giving California's cities a reputation for severe traffic congestion.
Construction and maintenance of state roads and statewide transportation planning are primarily the responsibility of the California Department of Transportation , nicknamed "Caltrans".
The rapidly growing population of the state is straining all of its transportation networks, and California has some of the worst roads in the United States.
The state has been a pioneer in road construction. With its orange paint and panoramic views of the bay, this highway bridge is a popular tourist attraction and also accommodates pedestrians and bicyclists.
The San Francisco—Oakland Bay Bridge often abbreviated the "Bay Bridge" , completed in , transports about , vehicles per day on two-decks. There are about a dozen important commercial airports and many more general aviation airports throughout the state.
California also has several important seaports. The giant seaport complex formed by the Port of Los Angeles and the Port of Long Beach in Southern California is the largest in the country and responsible for handling about a fourth of all container cargo traffic in the United States.
The Port of Oakland , fourth largest in the nation, also handles trade entering from the Pacific Rim to the rest of the country. The Port of Stockton is the easternmost port on the west coast of the United States.
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